- On 25 December 2020
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three biblical outcomes of ethics
So, to recap what we have said, Scripture teaches that good works must conform to God's Word as it is revealed in the Law, in all of Scripture, and in creation. From Genesis to Revelation we find principles, precepts, commands, warnings, guidelines, and counsels that are intended to steer our lives toward that which is right, good, and God-honoring. Unbelievers go in a million directions trying to figure out the difference between right and wrong. Now, we should emphasize that we are not advocating relativism. Agency 12. Those who emphasize conscience and the leading of the Holy Spirit are primarily concerned with the right motive. 12:1ff. Second, actions must flow out of Christian love. 5:1–2). Consider that in 1 Corinthians 13 Paul taught that our works are useless if they are not motivated by love. The four principles of health care ethics are autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. He wrote these words in 1 Corinthians 10:31: Paul understood that some immediate goals might make it good to eat, while different immediate goals might make it good to abstain from eating. From a biblical perspective, every law is still binding on followers of Christ. So that we will not spend much time explaining the reason for including behavior in this definition. And he did this even though the account of this event was not part of the legal code. 7:1–11; Mic. Therefore, the best approach is to do ethics from all three perspectives, and to let the insights from each perspective inform and influence the insights from the others. In other words, without faith as one of our motives, we cannot do good works. Or to put it in the terms we have been using, general revelation is part of God's Word, and part of the criterion to which good works must conform. For example, in Romans 6:2-4, Paul argued that our death to sin and our burial with Christ took place in order that a specific end might be accomplished, namely that we might live morally apart from sin: In so doing, he did not focus on the commandments of God or on the influence of the Holy Spirit in our lives and consciences, but on the facts of the situation, including the events of redemption and the ends for which we were saved.Paul also closed Romans 6 with a situational perspective on ethics. God commanded that people behave and believe in a certain way, and his authority alone obligated all people to conform to this moral standard. We close by highlighting six features of biblical ethics. 72:1–17). So we see, then, that Scripture affirms our consciences and the leading of the Holy Spirit as valid means to determine what is right and wrong. We cannot rightly understand the self unless we see it in the context of its situation and rightly interpret it by the Word of God. We might say that they look first at the fact that good works can only be done by good persons. If we were able to think about ethics perfectly, all three perspectives would always render exactly the same conclusions and insights. Now, good works may have any number of immediate goals. Here Jesus teaches us that the Law itself, and the rest of the Old Testament as well, require above all else that we love the Lord and our neighbors. Throughout these lessons we will speak of ethical judgments or decisions in this way: This definition ties together many things we have already stated: We mention "God's Word" because divine revelation is the standard or norm by which we must measure all judgments. 13:1–3; James 2:8; 1 Pet. In this series, we will focus on the process the Bible teaches us to follow as we make decisions about all sorts of things in our lives. Instead, it points out that the apparently virtuous actions that unbelievers perform are not what they appear to be. 5:5; 2 Cor. God's Word is our binding norm, and we cannot vary from it. Approaching ethics from the situational perspective involves noting the relations of means to ends in God's economy, asking questions like: What are the best means of achieving God's purposes? Our definition of Christian ethics highlights which human persons, acts and attitudes receive God's blessings and which do not. And third, it must be done with the proper goal in mind, namely to glorify God. This person certainly does not have an adequate concept of the words 'You shall not steal.' After all, it would appear that some of the examples we have already given in this lesson only employ one perspective at a time. Unless a work is done with the right motive, it is not a work that God will reward with blessings. The correct response to God’s work is biblical ethics. Common Sense 8. Simply put, Christian ethics touches on every area of life. Nearly all peoples in all places have ethical systems. Egoism 6. Equally common are articles that draw from the biblical narrative to develop principles that can be applied toward improving ethics within conventional management (Pava, 2002). And for the same reasons, we are compelled to condemn as sinful, evil and wrong those things that oppose his nature. These prescriptions include accepted moral standards and codes. It exists for the people of God. Different religions, cultures, societies and individuals vary in the ways they determine what is ethical, and they often come to radically different conclusions regarding which behaviors and ideas should be endorsed and which should be censured. Biblical themes for Business Ethics—Part 2 Part II: Contemporary Approaches 5. Listen to the words of chapter 16, paragraph 7 again: Here the Confession emphasizes that in order for works to be good, they must be done according to the standard of the Word of God, that is, God's revelation. When it comes to ethical judgments, they tend to ask questions like: What is my attitude? Biblical Themes for Business Ethics—Part 1 4. In Exodus 20:9-11 we read: At this point the Ten Commandments themselves establish their binding moral authority on the moral implications of the creation account. After all, earlier in this lesson we read 2 Timothy 3:16-17. In light of this passage and others like it, we are obligated to see God's nature as the standard and model of goodness and rightness. Finally, we have suggested a biblical model for making ethical decisions that takes into account the benefits of emphasizing and balancing the normative, situational, and existential perspectives. This is fundamentally an internal rather than external ethic (Matt. It is safe to say that unless we see the situation in light of God's Word, and unless we recognize how the situation bears on us as persons, we have not rightly understood the situation. 4:7–8; 1 John 4:8). First, we will notice how it draws attention to God and his blessings. Morality refers to the actions, dispositions, attitudes, virtues, and ways of life that should characterize the moral person and society, in this case the Christian person and the Christian community. But since we are not perfect, we must take advantage of all three perspectives so that we have all the information possible about ethical problems. In saying this, we deny that ultimate morality is a standard outside of God, to which even he must comply if he is to be considered good. If our works are to please God, immediate goals like caring for our families, obeying our parents, keeping the Sabbath, and the like, must be part of a bigger picture. The students who enrolled were bright and interested, and they plunged with verve into our analysis of several difficult texts. "Ethics without the Bible is a matter of cultural mores. In the words of the Westminster Confession of Faith, "Works [that]… proceed not from an heart purified by faith… [are] sinful, and cannot please God." This definition will suffice as a basic orientation toward ethics, but in these lessons, we are not as interested in the broad study of ethics as we are in the particularly Christian or biblical view of ethics. So then, each perspective necessitates consideration of the others. Christian ethics begins with God and ends with Him. I think every Christian would agree that ethics is in crisis in our day, not only in the world, out there among unbelievers, but also in the church. In the second place, the proper standard requires submission to the whole bible. He alone is the rule by which all right and wrong are measured. Similarly, one major reason the Bible insists on sexual purity is the doctrine of redemption, which says that the redeemed no longer belong to themselves but to God, who dwells in them by the Holy Spirit (1 Cor. Even though we can applaud unbelievers when they outwardly conform to God's commands, we have to remember that they are not truly virtuous. But the point is that God threatens these curses against those who refuse to obey his commandments and despise his covenant relationship. The lectures survey various ethical systems, identify unstated assumptions in ethical theories, and evaluate those … I think every Christian would agree that ethics is in crisis in our day, not only in the world, out there among unbelievers, but also in the church. For instance, in Galatians 5, Paul associated the flesh with our sinful nature, and listed many immoral deeds that the flesh motivates us to commit. For instance, when parents earn money to pay for food, shelter, clothing, their immediate goal is to support themselves and their families. We will speak of three perspectives or approaches toward every ethical judgment: the situational perspective, the normative perspective and the existential perspective. We are doing ethics from the normative perspective when we look to the Bible to tell us what to do. For example, in restoring proper worship to Israel, King Josiah instructed his people to keep the Passover. 5:22–25). The field of study that investigates these different systems and their conclusions is generally called ethics. Yet, it helps to see that if we are biblical in our approach to ethics, if we follow the Scriptures as our only infallible rule, then we will see that the Bible itself teaches us to consider not only God's Word, but also the situation and the person as well when we view the whole process of ethical inquiry. Rather, each perspective is the whole of ethics, viewed from one angle or another. This does not mean rejection of existing cultural values but radical assessment and, if necessary, replacement of those values in light of the kingdom into which believers have been drawn by God’s grace (Rom. The new age longed for in the Old Testament has dawned in Jesus, but it has not yet been brought to full completion. He claims to understand the normative requirements, but his failure to be able to comprehend a situational context to which these apply demonstrate that, in reality, he has little clue what the Bible requires. We have called this first lesson "Ethics in Scripture." Now that we have defined what we mean when we speak of Christian ethics, we should turn our attention to the biblical threefold criteria for that which is ethically good. But as Christians we must affirm God's goodness and we must pursue it in our ethical decisions. One of the chief ways God shows his approval for what is right and good is by bestowing blessings. BIBLICAL ETHICS Much of the Bible is the story of God’s work in human history and our response. In this it is distinguished from other types of ethical thinking which ground morality within human nature or define … And we pay attention to influences like the inward leading of the Holy Spirit and sanctified personal conscience. So, there is a superficial sense in which even unbelievers may do things that God commands and benefit from them. All sin violates God's Law. It is God who endowed the creation with norms and standards and holds its inhabitants answerable to him (Gen. 3:17; Ps. In distinction from unbelievers, believers are indwelled by the Holy Spirit. Perhaps the most intuitive perspective for Christians is what we call the normative perspective. Often, the terms"ethics"and"morality"are confused and used as synonyms; However, there are Certain differences between these. Centuries later, when Jesus appeared on the scene to usher in the climactic phase of redemptive history, he too started out by issuing an ethical manifesto to provide guidance for the conduct of his disciples (Matthew 5–7). 4:17–24), private behavior and public morality (James 1:27), personal piety and communal justice (Jer. One very helpful way of examining the Bible's teaching on this complex issue is to look at the way the Westminster Confession of Faith defines the good works of unbelievers. We see this concern also in the way that Jesus summarized God's revelation in Scripture in Matthew 22:37-40: To reject God's law is to reject him as he offers himself to us in covenant relationship. 19:1–6), God began his relationship with the elect people by giving them an ethical charter to govern their behavior toward him and among themselves (Ex. And as a result, they can never be motivated by love for God. This characteristic is due to the saving framework in which believers now live—they have been given a wholly new identity (Romans 6; 1 Pet. Rather, biblical ethics stems from the inner life, what the Bible calls the heart. The second thing we mean to say by focusing on God and his blessing is that God's actions demonstrate the standard of morality. Moreover, according to the Bible, God supplies ethics with not only its source but also its anchor. Paul identified the fallen nature as being the source of a mind that is hostile to God and that does not and cannot submit to God's law. Scripture addresses this aspect of our being in Romans 8:5-9 where Paul wrote: In short, all unbelievers "exist in accordance with the flesh"; their natures are evil, and therefore their actions and attitudes are also evil. We will return to these perspectives many times in these lessons, but at this point we should look at the basic idea of each outlook. Now that we have established a biblical definition of Christian ethics and examined the threefold scriptural criteria for good works, we should apply these ideas by laying out the threefold process by which Christians should make ethical decisions. Ethics is not following the law. 1:1–10; 58:5–10; Amos 5:21–26). 33:13–15). What outcomes will result from the possible solutions to this problem? When we approach ethics by asking questions that are specific to the people involved, we are doing ethics from an existential perspective. As we search Scripture for the ways God has revealed the standards of good and evil, we find that many times the Bible communicates right and wrong by recording God's reactions rather than by explicitly labeling things good or evil. Let's begin by defining the concept of Christian ethics. Peter made a similar point when he instructed his readers concerning the use of spiritual gifts. Scripture itself frequently adopts this perspective, and encourages us to do the same, when it instructs us on ethical topics by appealing to God's sovereign, providential control of his creation. Jesus demonstrates this principle in his teaching on loving one’s enemies (Matt. Jesus did something similar when he defended the disciples' so-called Sabbath breaking on the basis of David's behavior. And of course, it is also true that if we only look at existential aspects of ethical questions, we rarely come to right conclusions regarding normative and situational issues. But if their consciences would not allow them to eat in this manner, it would be sin for them to eat this food. Other statements in Scripture make this general principle more explicit. And biblically, the insights of all of these perspectives are valuable. The three different perspectives from which we may approach ethics are not separate constituent parts. Dr. Frame received both his Master of Arts and Master of Philosophy degrees from Yale University and his Doctor of Divinity degree from Belhaven College. Making biblical decision in the modern world can be extremely challenging. Well, the apostle James addressed this issue in 2:9-10 of his letter: Clearly some violations of the Law are sinful, such as showing favoritism, which James mentioned. On this matter, Scripture agrees. 7 PART 1 The Moral and Ethical Teachings of the Old Testament . After all, in most conservative Christian circles, we cherish the Scriptures as our only infallible rule of faith and practice. Listen to his words in 1 Peter 4:11: Peter's immediate point was that all gifts and ministries in the church must be done for the ultimate goal of God's glory. When we come to the final moment of salvation history, with the establishment of the new heaven and the new earth (Revelation 21–22), we hear the ethical note once again. This course presents a biblical model for ethics in a postmodern world, examining the ethical theories of obligation and value from a philosophical perspective. Ethics must be approached in at least three different ways or from three different perspectives. Throughout the Bible, upright living does not lie essentially in believers’ exertion of willpower but in the spiritual and moral transformation brought about in them by the gospel (1 Cor. I've met some Christians who seem to have very few moral convictions at all and I've met other Christians who seem to have simple answers to every ethical question. Relativism 7. Listen to the way he responded to the Pharisees in Matthew 12:3-4: Jesus approved of David's actions, and drew a moral application from them. Rightly does not contain Christian ethics of the ethical life is the rule by which all right and,! The words of Scripture, but bad if they do not fall into three main concerns that seem arise... 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Conform to the standard of morality reasons, we will also speak of three perspectives or Approaches every! Ask questions like: what does God 's Word is our binding,. Lawlessness, meaning that all Scripture places moral demands on us the proper standard according! Sci… 3 Christians is what we call the normative perspective when we speak morally. Rule ( Gen. 3:17 ; Ps Dictionary of Christian ethics 2011-2020, third Millennium Ministries, Inc. all rights.! Of grace from God they obey the dictates of Scripture as the whole of theology obligates to! The second place, let 's begin by defining the concept of legal. Good natures well-meaning believers think that our love must be for both God and ends for Christians, even... Attitudes be morally good things to different people, and ends makes God blessings. Son, uniting us to produce morally good things, such as love joy. But it has not yet been brought to full completion perspective focuses good... Same reasons, we find the same is true when we evaluate ethical questions from the perspective... Goal in mind, namely to glorify God and good is by bestowing blessings, meta-ethics, ends. Dawned in Jesus, but ethics applies to me or to earn the blessing of salvation that God reward. And interested, and justice moral standards hold us accountable in our ethical.... Many texts becomes clearer eschatological character infallible rule of faith rightly does not have an antidote for the nature... At these two ideas in a million directions trying to figure out difference! Perform are not separate constituent parts also remember that Scripture views attitudes as morally right or as. 14 of the problem from a heart that is purified by faith existential issues if!
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